Wednesday, March 11, 2020
Mcdonalds marketing plan Essays Mcdonalds marketing plan Essay Mcdonalds marketing plan Essay McDonalds will continue to increase its annual revenue and stock prices over the next five years. The purpose of this report is to show my working knowledge of the 4 As of marketing. Please evaluate this report and prepare for discussion on Wednesday. Product The corporate strategy for McDonalds product is a threefold approach using strategic flexibility. The three components are permanent, temporary, and local product. Each layer of the product strategy fulfills a distinct purpose. The main purpose of the permanent items is to ensure that there is always something familiar or consumers on the menu (1). The temporary products function as a development strategy to give customers a new experience and to experiment with products that may become permanent (1). As McDonalds expands internationally, the local products have been created to meet consumer demands in particular markets (1). The way that McDonalds implements its business level strategy is through product differentiation, such as the companys response to criticism and the publics of popular menu items, such as the Egg White Delight McMullen, which succeeds in cutting fat and calorie count (2). On a functional level, products such as the Microbial Tagging, available across Morocco, serve to support the strategic flexibility of McDonalds corporate strategy. When you walk into a McDonalds no matter where you are in the world the restaurant should connect to the local culture, said company representative Leslie Rose. So when you look at our menus Youll find food that reflects local taste preferences (3). Price The corporate pricing strategy for McDonalds is based on low price/high volume. Effective pricing is a main component but the company also realizes the importance f value- people enjoy McDonalds food which is a big part of repeat business. The best pricing in the world will not sell a product if the consumer does not perceive value in what they are purchasing (4). This strategy is implemented on the business level by the McDonalds Value Menu. The items on the Value Menu often serve as loss leaders in order to sell other products which are profitable (4). On a functional level, prices are contingent on competitors, such as Wendy. Wends has started advertising its lower-priced items more aggressively this year and came out with a ewe value menu (5). This has resulted in expansion of the popular dollar menu and continued efforts to compete with the offerings from other chains, such as the creation of the McDonalds dollar breakfast menu (6). A McDonalds spokesman, Bill Whitman, said the menu isnt aimed at repelling rivals, but several of McDonalds test sites are the same markets where Wends is entering into the breakfast business (6). Place The corporate strategy for McDonalds concerning place is a push and pull strategy. The major focus is on push- that is, opening restaurants all over the U. S. , both in ties and on highways as well as expanding internationally. This strategy has been so successful at discovery and exploitation of new business opportunities that the McDonalds business model has become the norm for other franchise organizations (7). The business level strategy can be seen in the expansion of McDonalds across China. McDonalds should open an outlet a day in China as it challenges Yum! Brand for dominance in Saiss economy (8). We should be opening a restaurant every day in the next three to four years in China, said Peter Iredell, company president for Asia. On a functional level, the company is also branching out to the internet. Americans will soon be able to order and pay from their mobile phones as McDonalds is currently testing a mobile payment application (7). McDonalds is hoping to capitalize on this new market as they develop this technology to ignite growth at a time when many Americans are eating out less (7). McDonalds vies to be successful by using a place strategy of adaptation and innovation, coming up with fresh products and services to address the needs of a diverse consumer market?as shaped by demographic, economic and local factors around the world (7). Promotion Strategy The corporate strategy for McDonalds for promotions is summed up in one word: saturation. McDonalds again utilizes a push strategy by using a variety of mediums for promotions: logos, billboards, mascots, packaging, and mass media. Mascots are used to promote good will for the company and their appearance also cause an the restaurants have begun promoting healthy menu items. This was likely sparked by the government requirements that restaurants such as McDonalds make public the nutritional facts of their food (4). Turning this into a positive, they have added healthy items to the menu and emphasized them both in an effort to appeal to a new market segment. This also downplays the less than positive nutritional facts of many of their traditional menu offerings (4). On a functional level, this promotion strategy functions through the use of temporary menu items, such as the Mighty Wings, which will be available only during football season (10). This expands upon the partnership between the NFG and McDonalds by using the NFG to promote the Mighty Wings (10). The traditional McDonalds customers eating habits may have changed, but the menu has also changed to accommodate them. This is marketing that evolves in relation to the changing needs of loyal customers (4). This adaptability combined with using traditional print media, characters, and product placement, allows McDonalds to implement its saturation promotion strategy. Threats One of the threats to McDonalds growth in the future is the creation and growth of fast food workers unions, which call for increases in benefits and minimum wage. If these demands are met, the company may have to reduce its staff to accommodate the larger wages (11). The Service Employees International Union in 2013 has helped establish a new union in at least six cities where the union and community advocacy groups have been organizing fast-food strikes (11). McDonalds will also have to continue to implement strategies within product, price, place, and promotion in response to the challenges brought by its competitors in the fast food market. Opportunities Opportunities for McDonalds in the future include: the continued expansion of the companys current product line, such as the Mighty Wings, to attract customers and the continued expansion of the popular dollar menu to compete with the offerings from other chains (6). Also, the expansion into new markets such as China and mobile applications should allow for continued growth. Responding to criticism and the publics increasing desire for healthier items by continuing to develop healthy versions of popular menu items, such the Egg White Delight McMullen. Another opportunity is the continuation of efforts to capitalize on promotions that have been successful for competitors, such as offering coupons to consumers to entice them to try new menu items. Prognosis The overall fiscal health of McDonalds over the past 1 5 years has followed a fairly insistent trend with revenue continuing to rise each year. The exception was from 2008 to 2009, where overall revenue decreased by 1. 7 percent (12). From 2009 to 2012, revenue has again continued to increase each year (13). Stock prices from the NYSE have followed the same trend of increasing during this period, from 64. 75 in 2009 to 102. 22 in 2012 (13). McDonalds also occupies the status as the largest single major player in terms of market share among fast food companies as outlined below (12). The overall trend that can be expected that using and expanding upon its product, annual revenue and stock prices over the next five years. Conclusion McDonalds will have to find a solution to the problem raised by fast food workers unions and strikes, but this may not be detrimental to growth. The company says it has not felt an impact from the strikes (11). With the high turnover rates of this type of employee, many have concluded that these unions will not be successful (11). The three-fold approach of McDonalds to product strategy ensures that there something familiar, provides avenues for new experiences, and creates room for local products. The price strategy focus on low price/high volume emphasizes both effective pricing and perceived value. A combination of adaptation and innovation, the push place strategy focuses on opening new franchises in the U. S. And abroad. By entering emerging markets and creating new technology, McDonalds can continue to expand. McDonalds saturation approach in its promotion strategy allows the company to remain both visible and able to respond to changing consumer tastes. If McDonalds continues to implement and expand upon its current corporate strategies then continued growth of revenue and market share can be expected.
Sunday, February 23, 2020
Events Marketing Management - Assignment Example The main purpose of this paper is to write a Marketing Plan and Plan Report for a launch event of a new Master programme in Events Marketing Management. The event shall take place on London Metropolitan University premises in June 2006. The underlying assumption is that there will be launch of the programme in June 2006, and the main goal of promotion marketing plan is to make positive public opinion and awareness towards Programme launch by this date. The London Metropolitan University needs to implement an integrated marketing plan to achieve a level of 100% enrolment at the Course during its first year, in order to do this it need to strategically categorise the potential students into various segmented areas. Consideration also needs to be given to the large number of students who have not decided on whether they want to join the Course. The plan advises what methods need to be used along will how they need to be implemented to obtain the overall objectives of the plan. The theoretical part or this paper will analyse the plan written in terms of academic marketing theory. Following are the key terms and concepts explained; they could be found over marketing plan in order of appearance. The main distinction of this marketing plan is in its core objective - promotion and marketing of new Master's programme. Since it is not a tangible product or service, some characteristic points will be considered further. Context Analysis determines the overall strategic direction, it must be a "comprehensive and through analysis of the background situation"1, therefore consideration must be given to the market, customer, company (internal) and general environment (external) contexts. 2 It examines the 'marketplace and the company's preferred overall approach to achieving its objectives in the light of market conditions and competitor behaviour"3. . Promotional Objectives These are specific 'goals' that need to be achieved during the timescale of the overall plan. It is important that these 'goals' are clearly understood and accepted by everybody involved. All of these 'goals' need to be measurable in order for the organisation to establish whether they have achieved the overall goal. The 'SMART' objectives are a set of guidelines to assist in measuring goals.4 (Appendix 1) Corporate Objectives The corporate objective is normally included within the mission -statement and normally stems from the purpose of the organisation. Marketing Objectives "Marketing communication objectives are specific communications tasks to be achieved among a defined audience to a defined extent and within a specific time frame" Communication Objectives should "Enhance the image or reputation of a product or where promotional efforts are seen as a
Friday, February 7, 2020
UPS and Global Marketplace - Term Paper Example The globalization has changed the world of logistics. In this paper I will be focusing on one of the largest logistics firm named UPS and will try to highlight on some of the key issues like their competencies, strategic transformations, customer-focused service and eco friendly activities. UPS in brief UPS is a process based firm and it was founded in the year 1907 in Seattle, Washington. It is basically a package delivery company headquartered in Sandy Springs, Georgia, United States. UPS is well known for its brown cars. It also operates its own airline. The essential part of it is that it provides the product as its process. UPS is the leader in freight services as well as in supply chain; in addition to that they are the largest package delivery company in the world. They supply around 3.8 billion packages annually across 200 countries and territories. The company is also the global leader in the logistics segment. UPS provides the most fuel-efficient logistics networks in the world, by mitigating the carbon footprint indirectly. They provide services, expertise, consulting support and also the products to green the supply chains of their own. In the year 2010, each day the company used to deliver more than 15.6 million packages to a minimum of 1.1 million customers per day which represents approximately 2% percent of GDP. They offer high class integrated solutions to mitigate the challenges faced in the globalization (Kumar, 2007, pp.5-11). Globalization and the UPS strike A report published in 1995 says that UPS undergone a signi ficant change in their management and started to follow strategic market management through which they were on the front lines of competition. The company grew from a bicycle delivery service to a digitally coordinated corporation by using several strategies like ensuring maximum flexibility while cutting down the operational cost. It is quite evident that it was just because of the workersÃ¢â¬â¢ loyalty and commitment which made the company to stand high but the problems occurred when the higher authority started to enforce rules upon them. The workers found hardly any variation from the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s stereotype rules. The injury rate in the organization was growing high and the workers didnÃ¢â¬â¢t find the place safe enough to work. Due to the implementation of several strategies in the globalization phase the company was getting high returns but still the workers didnÃ¢â¬â¢t get any benefit out of that and got frustrated. Hence, due to these several reasons they stand ag ainst the company for a strike in the year 1997 and challenged the globalization (Kumar, 2007, pp.5-11). Some approaches of being global Though the culture of UPS has been tested many times but still it is their core through which the company is standing sky high against the pressures from competitors. They did not mould into pressure even during the worst economic times. They took many initiatives and approached challenges. They created a centralized process group, which is known as Program Management Group-Process Center of Excellence by which they can propose the initiatives after which it is evaluated. After the evaluation it is well approved and then measured. This is an effort to redefine the Strategic Processes of the organization. It also ensures that the processes are documented. It also provides the training in design and process analysis. It is quite evid
Wednesday, January 29, 2020
Branding Universities Essay The end of the 1990s witnessed the corporatization of public universities in Malaysia resulting in the publication of corporate literature in these universities and the type of writing Fairclough (1993) refers to as the marketization of academic discourse. Marketization is necessary in public universities due to stiff competition in attracting students among the public universities as well as from the increasing number of private universities. This article reports how Malaysian universities re-brand themselves using the results of an investigation on corporate brochures from these universities. The investigation employs a structural analysis and a textual analysis. Although informative in nature, these corporate brochures exhibit the use of promotional elements in the texts as seen in the contents and the language use. The communicative functions of university brochures are viewed to be more promotional than informative. ABSTRACT KEY WORDS: brochures, corporate culture, genre analysis, re-branding, universities Introduction Academic institutions, particularly public universities, used to be regarded as the pinnacle of learning. Most of these universities were reputed for providing the best tertiary education and the mere mention of their names lit up the faces of those who had the privilege of learning from these fountains of knowledge and those who aspired to be associated with them. There was a time when admission was Ã¢â¬Ëby invitation onlyÃ¢â¬â¢, otherwise young men and women were seen struggling to gain admission into these prestigious institutions. These public universities acquired a promotional value (Wernick, 1991) without having to promote or market themselves. In advertising terms, these universities did not go through the process of branding. Branding is a fundamental strategic process of effectively marketing a product or service which includes creating a brand name and identity, designing Downloaded from http://dcm. sagepub. com by Heemal Kasseean on October 9, 2009 58 Discourse Communication 2(1) the packaging and promoting the product or service (Randall, 1997). Although Randall (1997) argues that Ã¢â¬Ëbrands (and therefore branding) are so fundamentally important to the survival and success of many firmsÃ¢â¬â¢ (p.2), this was not the case in public universities in the past. This is significantly due to the fact that these academic institutions were claimed to be free from other influences as evidenced by Cardinal NewmanÃ¢â¬â¢s view of universities cited by Wernick (1991) as: . . . the high protecting power of all knowledge and science, of fact and principle, of inquiry and discovery, of experiment and speculation; it maps out the territory of the intellect, and sees that . . . there is neither encroachment nor surrender from any side . . . (Cardinal Newman, 1847, cited in Wernick, 1991:151) That was the traditional image of public universities, independent of political or societal influence and this image was not built by advertising or branding. As centres of academe, public universities were known for their quality education based on the results of their graduates and their performance in the careers they embarked on upon graduation. As years passed, more aspiring young people would apply for admission in certain universities due to their reputation. This reputation in turn became theÃ image of the universities which automatically created the promotional value (Wernick, 1991) of these universities, mentioned earlier as the pinnacle of learning. Each university was identified by its name or logo and no further promotional strategies were required. By providing quality education, these universities successfully built Ã¢â¬Ëa distinct brand personalityÃ¢â¬â¢ (Randall, 1997: 67) for themselves as the success of branding is justified when people are reminded of a particular brand just by looking at the logo or hearing its brand name. The traditional role of public universities was to manage society (Jarvis, 2001) by producing scholars in the various fields of study so that they can go out to make the world a better place to live or join the academia to continue producing scholars. However, towards the end of the 20th century, the role of universities started changing from serving the state in managing society to serving the industry and commerce in ensuring that people are employable (Jarvis, 2001). This is partly due to the demands of the contemporary knowledge-based society (Veitch, 1999) where consumers have become more knowledgeable and have started demanding for better education and improved quality of life. Changes started taking place in public universities in the West as early as the 1980s where the governments were forced to abolish academic tenure and decrease funding for these universities. This was when many traditional universities started transforming into corporate universities (Jarvis, 2001) where they have to assume a more corporate form and function more like a corporation. From being the centre of academe, universities have become business-like entities (Connell and Galasinski, 1998). In Malaysia, a number of public universities have recently been corporatized, a move taken by the Malaysian government in its effort to inculcate better and more efficient management of these institutions. As corporate culture (Treadwell and Treadwell, 2000) is a new culture in all these universities, most of them Downloaded from http://dcm. sagepub. com by Heemal Kasseean on October 9, 2009 Osman: Re-branding academic institutions with corporate advertising have set up corporate communications departments (Hajibah Osman, 2005) to handle corporate matters. Among the functions of these departments are managing corporate information and publication and projecting a positive image of the universities which are part of corporate advertising. Corporate advertising Business corporations use corporate advertising to enhance the image of the whole organization, or of the general brand in order to influence social values or to establish a connection between the corporation/brand and an already established positive value and in this era of identity, a lot of emphasis has been put on the importance of brand and corporate identities (Richards et al. , 2000). Unlike business organizations, universities are non-profit institutions. Public universities are viewed to use corporate advertising to enhance the strong foundation and to highlight the quality of these institutions of higher education. While it is common for business corporations to publish informative or promotional literature from time to time to inform the public about new developments in the organization (monthly or yearly reports) or to introduce new products or services (product launch leaflets), the use of promotional literature in academic institutions is a recent development. Malaysian public universities have started producing informative literature in the form of university brochures and special booklets in conjunction with certain celebrations in the universities as well as promotional literature in the form of leaflets providing brief information on academic programmes offered by the universities or introducing new programmes (Hajibah Osman, 2005). By employing new strategies to market their traditional image, from the advertising perspective, these universities are re-branding their products and services. Re-branding is the process of marketing an existing product or service of one brand with a different identity involving radical changes to the brand name, logo, image, marketing strategy and advertising themes (Wikipedia, 2006). In the advertising industry, re-branding is often referred to as re-positioning, that is, re-positioning a product or service in order to improve sales. Although there was no actual initial branding taking place in universities, being non-profit making institutions, the term Ã¢â¬Ëre-brandingÃ¢â¬â¢ is used in this article to illustrate the change in the image of these universities particularly since the late 20th century. Significantly, this change has been effected without compromising the traditional characteristics and values of these institutions as the pinnacle of higher learning. The process of re-branding is aimed at improving the image of the universities by focusing on the facilities and highlighting the quality of the academic programmes. This article attempts to investigate the process of re-branding in public universities in Malaysia by conducting a genre analysis on university brochures, one type of print materials published by the institutions that represent corporate advertising. Analysing genres can lead to a Ã¢â¬Ëthick descriptionÃ¢â¬â¢ (Bhatia, 1993) Downloaded from http://dcm. sagepub. com by Heemal Kasseean on October 9, 2009 59 60 Discourse Communication 2(1) of the texts contained in these genres, explaining why certain texts have been constructed the way they are. The specific objective of this article is to identify and discuss the strategies used in the re-branding process based on the structural organization of university brochures and the communicative functions of this type of brochure. Previous investigations of advertising genres mostly focused on straightsell advertisements of products or services. Bruthiaux (2000), for instance, investigated how advertisers make use of a limited space available to them to create successful advertising copies by examining the syntactic features in an undisclosed number of display and classified advertisements. His results show that the degree of syntactic elaboration Ã¢â¬Ëvaries substantially even when content of equal simplicity/complexity or familiarity to readers is being presented. This variation appears to correlate with perceptions of status on the parts of both writers and readersÃ¢â¬â¢ (p. 298) and the persuasive elements lie in the vacuous displays of linguistic sophistication designed to create a largely artificial sense of exclusiveness among status-conscious readers (p. 369). Investigations have also been conducted on the language of advertising in Asia, for instance, Tej BhatiaÃ¢â¬â¢s (2000) investigation of language of advertising in Rural India and Henry and RoseberryÃ¢â¬â¢s (1998) investigation of the linguistic features in tourist information brochures from Brunei. Thus far, there have been very few linguistic analyses conducted on the genre of corporate advertising. Therefore, the genre selected for analysis in this article is brochure, specifically corporate brochure from academic institutions. A brochure is a printed document of six or more pages, used to introduce an organization, published only once and distributed to special publics for a single purpose (Newsom and Carrell, 2001). The discourse community of Public Relations (PR) specifies five characteristics of brochures, three of which are related to the present article: always having a singular message statement; having a purpose Ã¢â¬â to persuade or to inform and educate; and attracting and holding the attention of the audience. Brochure genre makes an interesting study because, first, this genre is viewed as a Ã¢â¬Ëblurred genreÃ¢â¬â¢ (a term borrowed from Scollon et al. , 1999) in that the term Ã¢â¬ËbrochureÃ¢â¬â¢ has been used to refer to other forms of publications including booklet, flyer, leaflet and pamphlet (Newsom and Carrell, 2001). Second, a brochure is a genre of persuasive discourse shaping the thoughts, feelings and lives of the public (Dyer, 1993) placing it under the field of advertising. However, according to Newsom and Carrell (2001), brochures are produced by PR practitioners rather than advertising practitioners. This is probably due to the fact that PR, among other things, incorporates looking after the reputation of an organization Ã¢â¬Ëwith the aim of earning understanding and support, and influencing opinion and behaviourÃ¢â¬â¢ (Beard, 2001: 7). The question of ownership arises placing brochures in an even more Ã¢â¬ËblurredÃ¢â¬â¢ state as the communicative functions of brochures have been set by the discourse community to which the genre belongs. In the context of this article, brochures are categorized as a corporate genre (basically PR) involving the principles of corporate writing (Treadwell Downloaded from http://dcm. sagepub. com by Heemal Kasseean on October 9, 2009 Osman: Re-branding academic institutions with corporate advertising and Treadwell, 2000). Brochures are readily available, particularly in print version, and are easily accessible electronically. Finally, brochure genre needs to be investigated because brochure format is one of the most frequently used information formats in advertising and PR but is ironically the least written-about (Bivins and Ryan, 1991). Corporate genre in academic institutions This article establishes that any publications from universities, particularly those produced by the Corporate or Public Relations Office, are referred to as corporate genre. Corporate brochures are usually categorized as informative brochures (Richards et al. , 2000) providing all the necessary information about the organizations they represent. There are certain corporate elements present to qualify them as corporate brochures, but mostly these brochures are informative. However, an analysis of corporate brochures from multinational corporations by Askehave and Swales (2001) prove that these brochures also function to promote the organization. This is evident in the presence of promotional elements selected as syntactic choices in these brochures. Corporate brochures also function to establish long-lasting trading relationships which are in fact paramount in todayÃ¢â¬â¢s industrial market. Hajibah Osman (2005) also notes that corporate brochures from academic institutions are promotional in nature with the use of promotional strategies apart from corporate and informative strategies. Another corporate genre in academic institutions, the university prospectus, started changing in form in the 1990s (Fairclough, 1993) where apart from providing information on the core business of the university, that is, the academic programmes, the prospectus has also included information on other aspects of the universities. Based on a critical discourse analysis of prospectuses from a number of British universities, Fairclough notes that these universities started promoting their programmes because they have come increasingly under (mostly governmentÃ¢â¬â¢s) pressure to operate like other types of businesses competing to sell their products to consumers. The university prospectus has become a Ã¢â¬Ëgenre of consumer advertising colonising professional and public service orders of discourse on a massive scale, generating many new hybrid partly promotional genresÃ¢â¬â¢ (Fairclough, 1993: 139). Academic institutions in Malaysia have also published promotional leaflets (Hajibah Osman, 2005) to advertise their academic programmes and these are circulated to potential students particularly before a new academic year begins. These leaflets are no longer the plain, boring information sheets but colourful and interesting ones. This article concurs with Askehave and Swales (2001) that corporate brochures function as promotional brochures more than projecting the corporate image and providing information. Thus, the investigation in this article attempts to identify and discuss the strategies that realize the promotional functions in this type of brochure as part of the re-branding process in public universities. Downloaded from http://dcm. sagepub. com by Heemal Kasseean on October 9, 2009 61 62 Discourse Communication 2(1) Methodology In 2005, there were 11 public universities in Malaysia (currently, there are 20). Brochures were obtained from the 11 universities and were initially analysed to identify the possible structural organization. Based on the organization, the communicative functions of these brochures were determined. The 11 public universities included in this investigation are: International Islamic University Malaysia (IIUM/UIA); Universiti Teknologi MARA (UiTM); Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia (UKM); Universiti Malaysia Sabah (UMS); Universiti Malaysia Sarawak (UNIMAS); Universiti Putra Malaysia (UPM); Universiti Perguruan Sultan Idris (UPSI); Universiti Sains Malaysia (USM); Universiti Teknologi Malaysia (UTM); Universiti Utara Malaysia (UUM); University of Malaya (UM). A textual analysis was conducted to examine the strategies used in the rebranding process. The strategies in the context of this article are tactical choices (Bhatia, 1993) which are cognitive processes Ã¢â¬Ëexploited by the writer to make writing more effective keeping in mind any special reader requirements, considerations arising from the use of medium or constraints imposed by organizational and other factorsÃ¢â¬â¢ (p. 20). The strategies used by universities in re-branding the institutions are discussed within the framework of the sociolinguistic theory which considers writing as Ã¢â¬Ëpart of the overall activities of a group and organizationÃ¢â¬â¢ (Gunnarsson, 1997: 140) and in relation to the corporate culture (Hagberg and Heifetz, 2000) practised by the universities. As a genre is a typical form of utterances, it should be studied in its social contexts of use (Berkenkotter and Huckin, 1993). Sociolinguistics does not only describe linguistic variation and the social context in which such a variation occurs, but also shows how linguistic differentiation reflects social structure (Coupland, 2001). The sociolinguistic perspective in this article considers the existence of factors underpinning the construction of university brochures and the concept of promotional culture (Wernick, 1991). Re-branding academic institutions It has been established that university brochures form part of the corporate advertising strategies in Malaysian universities which in turn are part of the rebranding process in these traditional institutions. The structural organization in these brochures consists of 10 sections identified as moves (Table 1). Some of the moves are exemplified with extracts from the university brochures in Figure 1 (see Appendix). In identifying the moves, the term Ã¢â¬ËserviceÃ¢â¬â¢ is used to refer to the educational services and the support services offered by the universities. All the brochures from the 11 universities include Moves I, C, L, D, J and S, indicating that these six moves are obligatory. Ninety-one percent of the brochures include Moves A, T and E, while 81 percent include Move V, making them optional moves. The 10 moves have been used to realize three communicative functions of the university brochures which are: Ã¢â¬ ¢ To inform the public about the academic programmes offered in the university and the facilities and other services available to support the academic programmes; Downloaded from http://dcm. sagepub. com by Heemal Kasseean on October 9, 2009 Osman: Re-branding academic institutions with corporate advertising Ã¢â¬ ¢ Ã¢â¬ ¢ To portray a corporate image of the university; and To promote the university as an academic institution based on the quality and the variety of academic programmes offered as well as the facilities available. These communicative functions of university brochures correspond with the general functions of brochures (Newsom and Carrell, 2001) set by the discourse community of PR. Re-branding strategies The 10 sections in university brochures have been identified as moves and these moves are realized with the use of strategies, and for the purpose of discussion in this article, re-branding strategies. The article discusses how the strategies contribute to the re-branding process and what their communicative functions are. NAME AND LOGO The first move in university brochures is called identifying the service which presents the name and the logo of the university. Although the brochures are in English language, the names of the universities are in Malay, the national language of Malaysia except two universities, International Islamic University Malaysia and University of Malaya. The names of the public universities were officially changed to Malay when the national language was made the medium of instruction in the mid-1970s. In the case of IIUM, however, the acronym by which it is commonly referred to by Malaysians is the Malay version, UIA. Similarly, University of Malaya is now popularly known as Universiti Malaya (UM). Interestingly, alumni up to the early 1980s still refer to this oldest university in the country as MU (Malaya University). TA B L E 1. Structural organization of university brochures Section Move identification Name of the university University slogan or motto Vision/Mission statement Profile or background of the university Location and size of the university Academic programmes offered at the university Facilities available to support the academic programmes Entry requirements, fees charged and duration of the programmes Career opportunities and recognition received by the university Contact addresses and telephone numbers Identifying the service (I) Attracting reader attention (A) Targeting the market (T) Establishing credentials (C) Locating the service (L) Describing the service (D) Justifying the service (J) Indicating the value of service (V) Endorsing the value of service (E) Soliciting response (S) Downloaded from http://dcm. sagepub. com by Heemal Kasseean on October 9, 2009 63 64 Discourse Communication 2(1) In the past, universities were identified by their crests but now these crests have been generally referred to as logos. Although it cannot be ascertained when the change exactly took place, this is the first re-branding strategy. However, this is not an obvious re-branding element because some of the established traditional universities in the world still use the term crest, for example, Oxford University (http://www. ox. ac. uk/web/crest.shtml). As far as Malaysian universities are concerned, both terms are similar and a recent survey of the university websites shows that most of the public universities in Malaysia refer to the crest as the logo while two universities (UKM and USM) refer to them as emblems. Most of the websites also provide the rationale for the design of the logo (e. g. UiTM, UPM). Whether used as crest, logo or emblem, interestingly, there are two common shapes observed: the shape of a shield (six universities) and a round shape (five universities) (Figure 2, see Appendix). The shape of USMÃ¢â¬â¢s emblem differs significantly from other logos in that it resembles a state emblem. This qualifies for the use of the term Ã¢â¬ËemblemÃ¢â¬â¢ (a heraldic device or symbolic object as a distinctive badge of a nation, organization or family Ã¢â¬â Oxford Dictionary and Thesaurus, 2001) by the university. Although the current shape of UPSIÃ¢â¬â¢s logo is round, it once had the shape of a shield (Figure 3, see Appendix). Compared with the logos of established universities which include traditional designs representing the academe, the current logos of Malaysian public universities include elements of modern designs. In fact, some of these logos have gone through some kind of Ã¢â¬ËevolutionÃ¢â¬â¢ as in the case of UiTM, UPM and UPSI. UPM Ã¢â¬ËevolvedÃ¢â¬â¢ from a training school to a college to a university focusing on agriculture. Later, the university started including more disciplines and the name was changed from Universiti Pertanian Malaysia (Malaysia University of Agriculture) to Universiti Putra Malaysia (Putra University of Malaysia) in 1997, taking after the name of the first prime minister at the same time keeping the same acronym. UPSI and UiTM underwent almost similar Ã¢â¬ËevolutionÃ¢â¬â¢; from a centre to a college to an institute and finally to a university. Throughout the Ã¢â¬ËevolutionÃ¢â¬â¢, the logos have also gone through many changes where the concept incorporated in the logos mainly represents the focus of the university. While UPSIÃ¢â¬â¢s logo changed in shape but not in concept, UiTMÃ¢â¬â¢s and UPMÃ¢â¬â¢s logos underwent a total facelift (Figure 3, see Appendix). This is probably due to the fact that UPSIÃ¢â¬â¢s focus of training teachers remains throughout. MOTTO AND SLOGAN A motto is a short sentence or phrase that expresses a rule for sensible behaviour, especially a way of behaving in a particular situation (Collins Cobuild Dictionary, 2001). Most of the university logos have the motto inscribed on them as the motto represents the culture or the way of life in the university. Once again, all the mottos of the public universities are in Malay. The more established universities still retain this culture inscribed in the logo as seen in UMÃ¢â¬â¢s motto (translated as) Ã¢â¬ËKnowledge, the Source of DevelopmentÃ¢â¬â¢, UPSIÃ¢â¬â¢s Ã¢â¬ËKnowledge, the Beacon of Pure CharacterÃ¢â¬â¢, UTMÃ¢â¬â¢s Ã¢â¬ËBy the Name of God for MankindÃ¢â¬â¢ and UUMÃ¢â¬â¢s Ã¢â¬ËScholarship, Downloaded from http://dcm. sagepub. com by Heemal Kasseean on October 9, 2009 Osman: Re-branding academic institutions with corporate advertising Virtue, ServiceÃ¢â¬â¢. UPSI keeps the same motto inscribed on the logo throughout its Ã¢â¬ËevolutionÃ¢â¬â¢ but UiTM left out its motto of 39 years from its new logo. The newly established universities (UMS and UNIMAS) do not have a motto inscribed in their logos. While a motto is a traditional feature of a public university, having a slogan is a new phenomenon. A slogan is a distinctive catchphrase that serves as a motto for a promotion campaign (Wells et al., 2003) used to sum up a theme for the benefit of the product or the service in order to deliver a message in a few words which are easily remembered. There are two types of slogans (Russell and Lane, 1990): hard-sell slogans are strongly competitive, epitomizing the special significant features of the product or service being advertised. Institutional slogans establish a prestigious image for companies which they need in order to enhance their products or services. Slogans in university brochures fall under the category of institutional slogans. Again, it cannot be ascertained when universities started creating slogans but there is a strong probability that they started at the same time when Malaysian public universities were undergoing corporatization in the late 20th century. Slogans started appearing on brochures and prospectuses of these public universities. The use of slogans has been viewed as a significant re-branding strategy as slogans represent the most promotional element in advertising. The purpose of having a slogan is to attract the readerÃ¢â¬â¢s attention and to let it linger on the readerÃ¢â¬â¢s mind. According to Russell and Lane (1990), the memorability of slogans can be enhanced by making use of literary techniques. These techniques consist of certain types of words including: Ã¢â¬ ¢ Ã¢â¬ ¢ Ã¢â¬ ¢ Ã¢â¬ ¢ Boldness Ã¢â¬â use of strong powerful words, and startling or unexpected phrases; Parallelism Ã¢â¬â use of a repeated structure of a sentence or phrase; Rhyme, rhythm, alliteration Ã¢â¬â use of repeated sounds; Aptness Ã¢â¬â use of appropriate, direct words (Russell and Lane, 1990). Slogans in university brochures have been created based on good advertising principles as they have been observed to make use of the literary techniques, for example: Ã¢â¬ ¢ Ã¢â¬ ¢ Ã¢â¬ ¢ Ã¢â¬ ¢ Ã¢â¬ ¢ Ã¢â¬ ¢ boldness: Garden of Knowledge and Virtue (IIUM) parallelism: The National University with an International Reach (UKM) aptness: Your Inspiration parallelism: Contemporary and Forward Looking (UNIMAS) boldness: Towards a World-Class University (UPM) boldness: Towards Excellence and Supremacy (UPSI) Boldness is exemplified with words such as Ã¢â¬ËvirtueÃ¢â¬â¢, Ã¢â¬Ëworld-classÃ¢â¬â¢ and Ã¢â¬ËsupremacyÃ¢â¬â¢ where the universities are bold enough to associate themselves with such high stature. Traditionally, public universities are centres of academe which do not portray an image of flaunting. Slogans using parallelism aim for jingle-like sounds so that readers can remember them easily while aptness acts like punchlines, strong and effective to be easily remembered. The bottom line is that a slogan is an Downloaded from http://dcm. sagepub. com by Heemal Kasseean on October 9, 2009 65 66 Discourse Communication 2(1) advertising concept and a marketing tool. The fact that public universities as nonprofit making academic institutions use slogans place them in a different light. They are currently functioning more like business entities. MISSION STATEMENT This move is identified as targeting the market based on the communicative functions of the mission statements. A mission statement provides information about what type of organization it is and what it does (Falsey, 1989) at the same time highlighting the positive factors in the organization. Stating the mission of the university is viewed as one of the two crucial strategies (the other being using slogans) in re-branding academic institutions as this move never appeared in academic genres before. This move has placed public universities in the same league as other successful corporations. Mission statements of public universities in Malaysia are observed to provide information as to what and how they can contribute to the public in terms of tertiary education as highlighted (underlined) in the following examples: (10) To become a distinguished university, aspiring to promote academic excellence in higher education and professional training necessary for the countryÃ¢â¬â¢s socio-economic development (UiTM). (11) To be a premier university seeking excellence in the advancement of knowledge to meet the aspirations of the nation (UM) (12) To become an exemplary university of internationally acknowledged stature and as a scholarly institution of preference and choice for students and academics through the pursuit of excellence in teaching, research and scholarship (UNIMAS) (13) To lead in the development of creative human resource and technology in line with the aspirations of the nation (UTM). The words Ã¢â¬ËdistinguishedÃ¢â¬â¢, Ã¢â¬ËpremierÃ¢â¬â¢, and Ã¢â¬ËexemplaryÃ¢â¬â¢ are used to emphasize the quality of the universities. Other words like Ã¢â¬ËexcellenceÃ¢â¬â¢, Ã¢â¬ËadvancementÃ¢â¬â¢ and Ã¢â¬ËstatureÃ¢â¬â¢ as well as Ã¢â¬Ëto leadÃ¢â¬â¢ are all bold words of promise by the universities. PROFILE OF THE UNIVERSITY This section is identified as the move to establish the credentials of the university as it provides information on the background and/or the current status of the university. The background information includes the date of establishment and the reason for the establishment while information on the current status of the university usually includes the achievements of the university in terms of academic programmes and physical development as well as the quality of the programmes offered. This move is supposed to be informational but there are a number of instances where the brochures provide the information on the current status of the university using Ã¢â¬ËpromotionalÃ¢â¬â¢ words and phrases. For example: (14) UNIMAS is an ISO-certified university . . . Its undergraduate programmes have been designed to suit the needs of society and industry. Downloaded from http://dcm. sagepub. com by Heemal Kasseean on October 9, 2009 Osman: Re-branding academic institutions with corporate advertising An ISO certification for an organization confirms the quality of that organization and it is now a common practice among public universities to obtain such certification to convince the public about the quality of the university, particularly the academic programmes on offer. Universities with ISO certification usually highlight it in their brochures as a strategy to promote the institutions. Other instances of promotional words can be observed in the following examples: (15) The university is the catalyst for regional growth in the northern region of Peninsula Malaysia (UUM) (16) From these humble beginnings, UM grew hand-in-hand with the young nation to become the nucleus for producing graduates of the highest quality and calibre. The word Ã¢â¬ËcatalystÃ¢â¬â¢ denotes the importance of the university in the regional growth of the northern region of the country, without which there would not have been much growth in that region, thus promoting the significance of the university. Similarly, the word Ã¢â¬ËnucleusÃ¢â¬â¢ conveys the significance of UM to the developing nation. Another instance is when a university states the commitment of the university to the public or the nation. UPM boldly states its commitment to become a worldclass university to convince the public to come and enrol in this university. (17) Named Universiti Putra Malaysia in honour of the pioneering Prime Minister of Malaysia, . . . has adopted this pioneering spirit and is committed to become the world class Univers.
Tuesday, January 21, 2020
Significance of Names in Flannery OÃ¢â¬â¢ConnerÃ¢â¬â¢s Good Country People The story Ã¢â¬Å"Good Country PeopleÃ¢â¬ , by Flannery OÃ¢â¬â¢Conner is a work that uses characterization in a new and interesting way to help shape and present the characters of this story. One of the main characters is Hulga Hopewell, also known as Joy Hopewell. This characters name plays a very ironic role in the story. Through the use of such a peculiar name OÃ¢â¬â¢Conner helps to develop and build the characteristics of Hulga. In the story Ã¢â¬Å"Good Country PeopleÃ¢â¬ the use of the name Hulga (Joy) Hopewell helps to further build upon the characterization of Hulga and give the reader a deeper understanding of the character. Joy Hopewell is the name given to Hulga by her mother and father when she was a baby. This name brings to mind a person who looks on the brighter side of things and doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t let things discourage her. In the readers mind this name may perhaps bring about the image of a teacher or someone who works with children in a well light happy place. It is also a softer more vulnerable name, which may have been OÃ¢â¬â¢ConnerÃ¢â¬â¢s intent in using the name Joy. In the story Joy changes her name to Hulga Hopewell because of the fact that she feels it better suits her personality. During her childhood Hulga had an accident in which her leg was shot off of her body; therefore, she has to wear a wooden leg that is rather bulky so by having the name Hulga it helps her to deter many people from asking questions or trying to get too close to her. Due to this accident Hulga becomes a brooding person, not very fond of company and entertainment. The name Hulga brings to mind a rather lar ge Swedish woman who could probably break a man in half. It is a brooding name and awkward on ... ...k that perhaps she should have kept her original name of Joy because it does in fact suit her. Throughout this story it appears that there are two distinctly different sides of Hulga Hopewell. One side is that of Hulga large, brooding, and rude. The other side however, is softer and much more vulnerable. That side is Joy Hopewell. By using these two names together OÃ¢â¬â¢Conner creates a unique picture of this character. The revelation that HulgaÃ¢â¬â¢s real name is Joy gives the reader some insight and helps the reader to see the softer side of Hulga more easily. By using something as simple as a name in this story the author creates deeper meaning for each character. Works Cited OÃ¢â¬â¢Conner, Flannery. Ã¢â¬Å"Good Country People.Ã¢â¬ Literature An Introduction To Fiction, Poetry, And Drama. Eds. X.J. Kennedy and Dana Gioia 3rd ed. New York Longman, 2003. 247-261
Monday, January 13, 2020
Explain the risk and possible consequences for children and young people of being online and using a mobile phone. There are many different types of ricks and possible consequences when children are using the internet, such as cyber bullying, it can make children feel vulnerable, isolated and depressed. Another risk is going on chat rooms, this is a big risk as they get speaking to people that children do not no, they could be lying about their age, or sex, so if a child started speaking to someone who they met online there is a risk that something could happen to the child or young person. Another risk is seeing Inappropriate Material such as seeing the wrong thing for the age, e.g. pornographic, hateful or violent photos. Using a mobile phone can also make you at risk as most mobile phones now have internet. Ã¢â¬ËÃ¢â¬â¢while this provides opportunities for communication, interaction and entertainment, there are possible risk to children and young peopleÃ¢â¬â¢Ã¢â¬â¢ (children and young peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s workforce 2011, p139) protection harm includes doing things of their phone without their parentsÃ¢â¬â¢ permission such as having contact with strangers, and looking at harmful context, which is not good for the child. Describe ways of reducing rick of children and young people from: social networking, internet use, buying online, using a mobile phone. internet use When children are using the internet there should be filter systems in order so that it can prevent children and young people from looking at inappropriate materials. There also should be procedures in place that if a child or young people do see inappropriate materials so that they can report this. buying online children and young people shouldnÃ¢â¬â¢t be given bank cards at a early age, but if they are they should be told about some of the consequences such as identity theft and security issues. To help prevent this you should make sure your virus software works and is up to date, only use retail shops that you trust and that you know are real websites and make sure that you have a strong password. using a mobile phone. To help prevent consequences using a mobile phone you should phone an operator up so that they can put an internet filter on their phones so it wonÃ¢â¬â¢t allow them to look at anything inappropriate if they are under 18, make sure they you register their phone and make sure you give them the right age.
Saturday, January 4, 2020
Ã¢â¬ ¢ Global Marketing and Supply Chain Management CH18 Ã¢â¬ ¢ Global Supply Chain Strategies. o Implement Efficiency/Cost Strategy. Focus on the low-cost labor, offshore development and manufacturing. Ã¢â¬ ¢ Preferable strategy in the early stage offsetting operations in Cambodia. Ã¢â¬ ¢ Probing the market. o After establishing on the Cambodian market implement Flexibility strategy. Ã¢â¬ ¢ Being a worldwide recognizable brand, the flexibility strategy is the must for the company. Ã¢â¬ ¢ Develop products that are available and influential in the whole Asia Pacific region and beyond. o Integrate as much as possible Innovation and Quality strategies in both Efficiency and Flexibility strategies. (Daniels et al., 2015, p.700) Ã¢â¬ ¢ Supplier Networks. o Source and develop ideas and prototypes at home. RD based in US. o Sourcing of raw material and components both at home and Asia pacific region. Depending on the cost. o Manufacturing and assembly of finished products abroad. o Sale of products. Both home and abroad. Ã¢â¬ ¢ Information Technology and Global Supply-Chain Management. o Apply EDI supply chain management to link the suppliers, manufacturers and intermediaries in the region. o Exploit Private Technology Exchange (PTX) between RD manufacturers and customers. Ã¢â¬ ¢ Mentor Graphics is customer oriented company. Ã¢â¬ ¢ PTX online collaboration allows us to make quick changes to products per customer request. Ã¢â¬ ¢ Customer and manufacturer are up to date with any changes or delays in RD. Ã¢â¬ ¢ Eliminates time andShow MoreRelatedAnalyzing Ikea s Growth Of The Firm, Dunning Oli Framework Approach Of Foreign Direct Investment ( Fdi )1325 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pages(FDI), this essay will also declare several issues may exist in an international business as well as factors should be considered in global supply chain control. 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